As a new parent, you will deal with at least a few of these eleven common baby rashes. The information in this article is intended to help parents and caregivers recognize some of the signs and symptoms associated with newborn rashes.
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11 Common Baby Rashes:
1. Diaper Rash (Diaper Dermatitis):
When it comes to common baby rashes, diaper rash is likely the most prevalent among babies and toddlers. The rash is caused by wet diapers, friction/rubbing, and food allergies.
By Dailyboth [CC0], from Wikimedia Commons
A diaper rash makes the skin on the baby’s bottom look moist with flat red patches of skin. The skin can be very red and irritated. Secondary infection with yeast occurs frequently.
The best prevention and treatment is to change your baby’s diaper frequently. Check her diaper every two hours. Make sure the area is clean and dry before putting on a clean diaper. Use a diaper rash cream as a barrier to prevent irritation and exposure to wet diapers and to promote healing. I have always used and sworn by Desitin diaper rash paste.
2. Prickly Heat Rash (Miliaria Rubra):
This rash is common on hot and humid days. Prickly heat rash develops because your baby’s sweat glands and skin structures are not fully developed yet.
On hot and humid days their sweat glands can get clogged which results in tiny red bumps on the face, folds of skin or other covered areas of the skin.
The best way to prevent prickly heat rash is to dress your baby in light and loose clothing, give cool baths and use air conditioning or a fan to keep your baby’s skin cool and sweat-free.
3. Baby Acne:
Baby acne is a skin rash believed to be caused by exposure to maternal hormones during pregnancy. It usually appears in the first 4 weeks after birth and can last until about 4 months of age.
The rash appears as small red pimples with white heads on the bay’s face and forehead. The rash usually disappears on its own.
Treating baby acne usually doesn’t require a trip to the pediatrician. It can usually be treated at home by washing the affected area with a mild, gentle soap. If the rash doesn’t clear up by 4 months of age, you may want to discuss it with your pediatrician to see if further treatment is necessary.
4. Scarlet Fever Rash:
Scarlet fever is an illness caused by the same bacteria that causes strep throat. Your baby will usually have a sore throat and high fever too.
By Estreya at English Wikipedia
The rash is bright red and can look like a sunburn. It usually covers most of the body. You may see a darker red area in the skin folds of the armpits, neck, and groin. Some children may have a “strawberry tongue”. The tongue looks red and bumpy and may have a white coating on it.
Prevention involves keeping your baby away from people who may have strep throat. Strep throat is easily spread from person to person. Treatment requires a trip to the doctor and antibiotics.
5. Chicken Pox (Varicella):
Chickenpox is a common illness in childhood. The rate of Chickenpox infection has dropped dramatically due to most children being vaccinated with the Varicella vaccine. The incubation period is 11-20 days.
The rash is characterized by itchy red blisters that get crusty and scab over. The child is contagious for about 4-5 days after the first blister appears. Recovery takes 7-14 days for most children.
Prevention is with the Varicella vaccine. Treatment is more about symptom management as you wait for the virus to clear your child’s system. You can try lukewarm baths and have the baby wear loose fitting clothing. Additionally, if your baby seems very itchy or is picking at the blisters contact your pediatrician to see what they recommend to ease the itching.
6. Measles (Rubeola):
Measles is included among the most common baby rashes globally. It is a highly contagious viral infection. It is the leading cause of death in children. Measles is transmitted via direct contact with droplets of an infected person. The incubation period is 7-12 days.
CDC/Dr. Heinz F. Eichenwald
The rash is generally widespread over the body and consists of red, itchy bumps.
Other symptoms include:
- A Runny Nose
- Red Eyes
- A sore Throat
- A “Barking” Cough.
The rash usually subsides within 3-5 days.
Measles is prevented by being vaccinated with the MMR vaccine. Measles can cause life-threatening complications including encephalitis and pneumonia. Treatment involves comfort measures including rest and lots of fluids.
7. Erythema Toxicum Neonatorum (ETN):
This red rash can produce tiny white or yellow bumps. It is self-limited and can occur in healthy newborns. The rash regresses in 5 to 14 days and requires no treatment. Once diagnosed, parents are given reassurance that it will resolve.
8. Hand Foot and Mouth (HFMD)
Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is caused by a virus (Coxsackie virus). It is most often contracted by children under 10 years of age and though it has unpleasant symptoms it is not serious. As with many viral syndromes, it has to run its course.
The symptoms include:
- Mouth ulcers or sores
- Rash or blisters involving hands, feet, legs, and buttocks
There is no treatment or vaccine for HFMD. Typically it will last 7 to 10 days. Symptomatic relief is recommended in the form of acetaminophen, ibuprofen and numbing mouth sprays. Soothing relief for sore throats can be in the form of popsicles and smoothies.
9. Roseola (Sixth Disease)
Roseola causes 3-5 days of fever followed by a rash for 1-2 days. It is very common. Most children have contracted Roseola by the time they enter kindergarten.
It is spread by respiratory (cough, sneeze) or direct contact. The incubation period is 9 – 10 days. Roseola is caused by human herpesvirus 6 and 7. A child can be contagious for up to two days after the fever subsides.
Signs and symptoms of roseola include:
- Abrupt onset high fever (103-104 degrees) lasting three to five days.
- Irritability S
- Swollen glands in the neck
- A Runny Nose
- Puffy Eyelids
- Mild Diarrhea.
- Rash 12-24 hours after fever breaks
- No treatment for the rash
- Fever can be high so fever reduction should be managed carefully with acetaminophen and ibuprofen. (Discuss fever management with your pediatrician. High fevers can result in febrile seizures.)
10. Cradle Cap Dermatitis:
Cradle cap is not uncommon in newborns. It is an inflammatory process and is a form of seborrheic dermatitis. Fortunately, it resolves with appropriate treatment.
For new parents appears it can be concerning, presenting with crusty, yellow, greasy, scaling patches. However, the important thing is that it is not contagious and is not caused by poor hygiene,
Typically, it will clear up in 6 to 12 months.
The theory as to why it develops is because the baby’s oil glands are still being stimulated by circulating maternal hormones.
- Gently washing and combing hair.
- Lubricants such as vaseline, baby oil, and mineral oil.
- Don’t pick off the scales as this could cause irritation and lead to infection.
Eczema in newborns can present with itchy, thickened, dry, scaly skin. It can be similar to cradle cap; however, it is a different condition, often seen on the face, elbows, and knees.
Eczema is also called atopic dermatitis. The most important point to keep in mind with eczema as a child or adult is to maintain adequate skin hydration. Hot showers or baths tend to dry the skin out.
Below are some measures you can take to treat newborn eczema.
- Lukewarm Bath
- Keep area clean and dry
- Moisturizers: Aveeno, Aquaphor by Eucerin, Cetaphil, Vaseline
- Two-thirds of children outgrow eczema.
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